grid long short-term memory

Nal Kalchbrenner, Ivo Danihelka, Alex Graves

This paper introduces Grid Long Short-Term Memory, a network of LSTM cells arranged in a multidimensional grid that can be applied to vectors, sequences or higher dimensional data such as images. The network differs from existing deep LSTM architectures in that the cells are connected between network layers as well as along the spatiotemporal dimensions of the data. It therefore provides a unified way of using LSTM for both deep and sequential computation. We apply the model to algorithmic tasks such as integer addition and determining the parity of random binary vectors. It is able to solve these problems for 15-digit integers and 250-bit vectors respectively. We then give results for three empirical tasks. We find that 2D Grid LSTM achieves 1.47 bits per character on the Wikipedia character prediction benchmark, which is state-of-the-art among neural approaches. We also observe that a two-dimensional translation model based on Grid LSTM outperforms a phrase-based reference system on a Chinese-to-English translation task, and that 3D Grid LSTM yields a near state-of-the-art error rate of 0.32% on MNIST.

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